Covenant Library Unified Glossary


Key:

{DBNN} = The Dawn-Breakers, Nabíl's Narrative
{ESW} = Epistle to the Son of the Wolf
{GL} = Gleanings From The Writings Of Bahá'u'lláh
{KA} = The Kitáb-i-Aqdas
{KI} = The Kitáb-i-Íqán

{CLUG} = Brief version of the entry (or when no source exists), for use as defintion of highlighted terms



A.H.

{DBNN: 'After Hijírah'. Date of Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina, and basis of Muhammadan chronology.}
'Abá
{DBNN: A loose outer garment, resembling a cloak, commonly made of camel's hair}
'Abá-Basír (Áqá Naqd-'Alí)
{DBNN(index): son of Haji Muhammad-Husayn, who repulsed the 'Iráqí regiment at Zanján}

{ESW: Son of a Zanján martyr and himself decapitated for his faith in that city}

{CLUG: Son of a Zanján martyr, Haji Muhammad-Husayn, who repulsed the 'Iráqí regiment at Zanján, and himself decapitated for his faith in that city}

'Abdu'l-'Azíz
{ESW: son of 'Abdu'l-Salám, a famous Muslim ecclesiastic of the Sunni sect}
'Abdu'l-'Azíz, Sultan
{GL: The Sultan who decreed each of Bahá'u'lláh's three banishments}
'Abdu'l-Bahá
{GL: The appointed Successor of Bahá'u'lláh and Center of His Covenant. (1844-1921)}

{KA: The 'Servant of Bahá', 'Abbás Effendi (1844-1921), the eldest son and appointed Successor of Bahá'u'lláh, and the Centre of His Covenant}

{CLUG: The 'Servant of Bahá', the eldest son and appointed Successor of Bahá'u'lláh, and the Centre of His Covenant (1844-1921).}

'Abdu'lláh
{KI: The father of the Prophet. He belonged to the family of Háshim, the noblest tribe of the Quraish section of the Arabian race, directly descended from Ishmael.}
'Abdu'lláh-i-Ubayy
{GL: An opponent of Muhammad}

{KI: A prominent opponent of Muhammad; called 'the prince of hypocrites'}

Abhá
{GL: Bahá means 'glory'. Abhá is its superlative. Both are titles of Bahá'u'lláh and of His Kingdom.}
Abhá Pen
{ESW: The Pen of the Most Glorious; that is, the power of the Holy Spirit manifested through the Prophet's writings}
Abjad
{KA: The ancient Arabic system of allocating a numerical value to letters of the alphabet, so that numbers may be represented by letters and vice versa. Thus every word has both a literal meaning and a numerical value}
Abraham
{KI: See Genesis 11-25; Some Answered Ouestions, pp. 12-14. Scholars give 2100 B.C.-2000 B.C. as his dates. Regarded by Jews, Christians, and Muslims as the Friend of God, the Father of the Faithful.}
Abú 'Ámir
{GL: An opponent of Muhammad}

{KI: An opponent of Muhammad; a monk}

Abú-'Abdi'lláh, Ábí-'Abdi'lláh, Sádiq
{ESW: Arabic term used in reference to Imám Jaafar Sadiq, the sixth Shí'ah Imám (83-148 A.H.)}

{KI: Designation of the sixth Imám, Ja'far-i-Sádiq (the Veridical), great-grandson of al-Husayn. Died A.D. 765, poisoned by Mansúr, the 'Abbáside Caliph.}

{KI: The sixth of the Shí'ih Imams}

{CLUG: (The Veridical) The sixth Imám (83-148 A.H.), great-grandson of al-Husayn. Died A.D. 765, poisoned by Mansúr, the 'Abbáside Caliph.}

Abú-'Alí Síná (Avicenna)
{ESW: An Arab physician and philosopher born in Persia, known in the West as the Hippocrates and the Aristotle of the Arabs (980-1037 A.D.)}
Abú-Dhar
{ESW: Abú-Dhar Ghifárí, an illiterate shepherd who became an esteemed disciple of Muhammad}
Abú-Ja'far-i-Túsí and Jábir
{ESW: Two Muslims who like Mufaddal handed down traditions from Imám Sadiq}
Abú-Jahl
{KI: Literally, 'the Father of Folly'; so styled by the Muslims. An implacable enemy of the Prophet}
Abu'l-Qásim-i-Káshí
{ESW: A learned Bábí from Káshán who was murdered in Baghdád by the followers of Mírzá Yahyá}
Abú-Nasr
{ESW: Abú-Nasr Farabi, Persian philosopher and writer who lived about the 4th Century, A. H.}
'Ád
{ESW: A powerful Arabian tribe, destroyed, like Thamúd, for its idolatry}
Adhan
{DBNN: Muslim call to prayer}
Afnán
{GL: Lit. 'twigs'. Denotes relatives of the Báb.}
Akbar
{DBNN: 'Greater'}
Akhtar
{ESW: 'The Star': A Persian reformist newspaper published in Constantinople and influenced by the Azalís}
'Akká
{ESW: The prison city to which Bahá'u'lláh was finally exiled. He arrived there August 31, 1868.}

{GL: The prison city in Palestine where Bahá'u'lláh was finally exiled. He arrived there on August 31, 1868.}

'Alí, Imám
{GL: The first Imám; cousin and first disciple of Muhammad and married to His daughter Fátimih}

{GL: The first Imám, and son-in-law of the Prophet}

{KI: The cousin and first disciple of Muhammad; husband of Muhammad's daughter, Fátimih; and through his son Husayn, ancestor of Siyyid 'Alí Muhammad, the Báb}

{KI: The son-in-law of the Prophet, the first of the twelve Imáms}

Alif. Lám. Mím.
{KI: These and other disconnected letters appear at the head of twenty-nine Súrihs of the Qur'án}
Amalekites
{KI: Expelled in early times from Babylonia, they spread through Arabia to Palestine and Syria and as far as Egypt, to which they gave several of its Pharaohs}
Amanuensis
{CLUG: A person employed to write what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority. The term is often used interchangeably with secretary or scribe.}
Amír
{DBNN: 'Lord', 'prince', 'commander', 'governor'}
Ancient of Days
{GL: A title of God, peculiar in the Bible to the Book of Daniel}
Annas
{GL: High Priest of the Jews and father-in-law to Caiaphas (John :18.V.13.)}
Áqá
{DBNN: 'Master'. Title given by Bahá'u'lláh to 'Abdu'l-Bahá}
Ashraf
{ESW: Áqá Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih martyred in Isfahán, October, 1888}
Askelon
{ESW: A coast town in Southern Palestine (Judges 14, 19)}
Assembly, The
{ESW: That is, the Assembly of the representatives of the people; the Parliament}
Athím
{KI: Sinner}
'Aválim
{KI: A compilation of Shí'ih traditions}
'Aynu'l-Baqar
{ESW: An ancient spring in 'Akká}
'Azam
{DBNN: 'The greatest'}
'Azím
{ESW: A believer to whom the Báb revealed the name and the advent of Bahá'u'lláh (God Passes By p. 28)}
Báb, The (Siyyid 'Alí Muhammad)
{DBNN: 'Gate'. Title assumed by Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad after the declaration of His Mission in Shíráz in May, 1844, A.D.}

{ESW: The Herald of the Faith (1819-1850)}

{GL: The Herald of the Faith (1819-1850)}

{GL: Born in Shíráz, Persia, on October 20, 1819*; the 'Point of the Bayan' and the 'Báb' and precursor of Bahá'u'lláh}

{KA: Literally the 'Gate', the title assumed by Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad (1819-1850) after the Declaration of His Mission in Shíráz in May 1844. He was the Founder of the Bábí Faith and the Herald of Bahá'u'lláh.}

{KI: The Qá'im and Mihdí of Islám, and the Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh. (Birth of the Báb: October 20, 1819*; His Martyrdom: July 9, 1850)}

* [Festivals of the Twin Birthdays] '...will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz.' UHJ
{CLUG: Literally the 'Gate', the title assumed by Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad (1819-1850) after the Declaration of His Mission in Shíráz in May 1844. He was the Founder of the Bábí Faith, the Qá'im and Mihdí of Islám, and the Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh.}

Bábís
{ESW: Followers of the Báb}
Badí
{ESW: ('Wonderful') Áqá Buzurg of Khurásán, bearer of the Tablet to the Sháh (See God Passes By p. 199)}

{CLUG: Bearer of Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to Násiri'd-Din Sháh}

Baghdad
{KI: Founded by the Caliph at Mansur in A.D. 762 on the site of a Christian village on the western bank of the Tigris. It remained for 500 years the seat of the Abbasid Government.}
Bahá
{DBNN: 'Glory', 'splendour', 'light'. Title by which Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Husayn-'Alí) is designated.}

{GL: A title given to Bahá'u'lláh by the Bab}

{KA: Bahá means Glory. It is the Greatest Name of God and a title by which Bahá'u'lláh is designated. Also, the name of the first month of the Bahá'i year and of the first day of each Bahá'i month.}

{KI: Literally, 'Glory,' 'Splendor,' referring to Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Husayn 'Alí) who had not yet declared Himself but had been already designated by this title.}

Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Husayn-'Alí)
{GL: The Founder of the Bahá'í Faith (1817-1892)}

{KA: The 'Glory of God', title of Mírzá Husayn-'Alí (1817-1892), the Founder of the Bahá'i Faith.}

{KI: The Founder of the Bahá'i Faith, the title being recorded in the Persian Bayán of the Báb and meaning the Glory, the Light, and the Splendor of God. (Birth of Bahá'u'lláh: November 12, 1817*; His death: May 29, 1892)}

* [Festivals of the Twin Birthdays] '...will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz.' UHJ
Balál
{ESW: The Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám. The Prophet gave him the task of calling the Faithful to prayer, and he became the first Mu'adhdhin of Islám. As he stammered and mispronounced the Arabic letter 'Shín' as 'Sín', he could not give the call correctly, but the perfection of his heart atoned for the fault of his tongue.}

{GL: An Ethiopian slave in Mecca, illiterate and despised, but transformed by his recognition of Muhammad}

Baní-Háshim
{KI: The family to which Muhammad belonged}
Baqíyyatu'lláh
{DBNN: 'Remnant of God'. Title applied both to the Báb and to Bahá'u'lláh.}
Bathá
{KI: Mecca}
Bayán
{DBNN: 'Utterance', 'explanation'. Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, particularly to His Books.}

{ESW: The chief doctrinal work of the Founder of the Bábí Dispensation}

{GL: The greatest doctrinal work of the Founder of the Bábí Dispensation (lit. 'Exposition')}

{KA: The Bayán ('Exposition') is the title given by the Báb to His Book of Laws, and it is also applied to the entire body of His Writings. The Persian Bayán is the major doctrinal work and principal repository of the laws ordained by the Báb. The Arabic Bayán is parallel in content but smaller and less weighty. References in the annotations to subjects found in both the Persian Bayán and the Arabic Bayán are identified by use of the term 'Bayán' without further qualification.}

{KI: The Bayán (Exposition) is the chief doctrinal work of the Báb. It is described in God Passes By (pp. 24-25) as a 'monumental repository of the laws and precepts of the new Dispensation and the treasury enshrining most of the Báb's references and tributes to, as well as His warning regarding, 'Him Whom God will make manifest'. . . . this Book, of about eight thousand verses, occupying a pivotal position in Bábí literature, should be regarded primarily as a eulogy of the Promised One rather than a code of laws and ordinances designed to be a permanent guide to future generations.' The Báb also wrote 'the smaller and less weighty Arabic Bayán.' }

Big
{DBNN: Honorary title; lower title than Khán}
Bihár
{KI: Reference to Shi'ih tradition}
Biháru'l-Anvár
{KI: A compilation of Shí'ih traditions}
Burning Bush
{GL: See Exod. 3.V.2. Symbolic of God's presence in the heart of Moses.}

see also Sadrah

Caiaphas
{GL: High Priest and President of the Court that condemned Jesus}

{KI: The Jewish high priest who presided at the court which tried and condemned Jesus}

Cain and Abel
{KI: The two sons of Adam and Eve. See Genesis 4 and Qur'án, súrih 5}
Caliphs
{KI: Literally, 'successors' or 'vicegerents.' The Shí'ihs hold that the successors of the Prophet must be the members of His own family, but they do not use the title Khalifih or 'Caliph.' The Sultán of Turkey assumed this title early in the 16th century}
Caravanserai
{DBNN: An inn for caravans}
Carmel, Mount
{ESW: The mountain in Israel where Bahá'u'lláh pitched His tent and where the Shrine of the Báb is situated}

{GL: One of the sacred spots in Bahá'í history, where are the shrines of the Báb and of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and memorials to other members of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's family}

{CLUG: The mountain in Israel where Bahá'u'lláh pitched His tent. One of the sacred spots in Bahá'í history, where are the shrines of the Báb and of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and memorials to other members of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's family}

Cherubim
{KI: In the Bible the Cherubim appear as distinct from the angels who are Jehovah's messengers, while the Cherubim are found where God is personally present: e.g. 'And he [God] rode upon a cherub.' (Psalms 18: 10). Figures of Cherubim were wrought into the hangings of the Holy of Holies and were represented above the Mercy Seat within. In later tradition, the Cherubim were included among the nine orders of angels.}
City of Certitude
{GL: A condition of high spiritual attainment}
Copt
{KI: The Copts were descendants of the ancient Egyptian stock. They were unbelievers in the time of Moses. The Septs were the tribes of Israel.}
Crimson Ark
{ESW: Each of the past Dispensations was referred to as an 'Ark.' This refers to the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh.}
Crimson Book
{ESW: Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the Covenant. See God Passes By, p. 238.}
Crimson Pillar
{KI: An allusion to the Religion of Bahá'u'lláh, crimsoned with the blood of martyrs}
Dárúghih
{DBNN: 'High constable'}
Dawlih
{DBNN: 'State', 'government'}
Day Star of Muhammad
{GL: Symbol of the Prophet as enlightening the world}
Dayyán
{ESW: Title given by the Báb to Asadu'lláh of Khoy, a devoted and distinguished believer. Was the third to recognize Bahá'u'lláh's true station before His Declaration. Murdered in Baghdád by the followers of Mírzá Yahyá. (See The Dawn-Breakers, p. 303)}
Dhabíh
{GL: Ishmael, famous Bahá'í and brother of Mírzá Jání of Káshán (see The Dawn-Breakers). Given this title (sacrifice) by Bahá'u'lláh.}
Dhi'l-Jawshan
{ESW: An Arabian term meaning 'clad in armor' applied to Mullá 'Abdu'llah the arch-killer of Imám Husayn}
Divine Elixir
{GL: Symbol of the power of faith to confer eternal life upon man; from 'elixir', an imaginary liquor supposed to prolong human life indefinitely}

{KI: Symbolic reference to the Elixir of the alchemists, that was supposed to transform base metals into gold}

see also Philosopher's Stone

Divine Messenger
{GL: Prophet of God. The Great Soul, the All-Perfect One through whom such a Revelation is given.}
Divine Messiah
{GL: The Divine King and Deliverer expected by the Hebrews}
Epistle
{CLUG: An elegant and formal letter directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually intended to teach moral instruction}
Farmán
{DBNN: 'Order', 'command', 'royal decree'}
Farmán-Farmá
{ESW: Title of Prince Firaydún Mírzá, the son of Prince 'Abbás Mírzá, and brother of Muhammad Sháh}
Farrásh
{DBNN: 'Footman', 'lictor', 'attendant'}
Farrásh-Báshí
{DBNN: The head farrásh.}
Farsakh/Farsang
{DBNN: Unit of measurement. Its length differs in different parts of the country according to the nature of the ground, the local interpretation of the term being the distance which a laden mule will walk in the hour, which varies from three to four miles. Arabicised from the old Persian 'parsang,' and supposed to be derived from pieces of stone (sang) placed on the roadside.}
Fátimih
{KI: The daughter of Muhammad and Khadíjih. She married 'Alí, the cousin of Muhammad, and had three sons. One died in infancy and from the other two, Hasan and Husayn, are descended the posterity of the Prophet known as Siyyids}
Fátimih, Book Of
{ESW: The book revealed by Gabriel for Fátimih as consolation after her Father's death and believed by Shí'ah Islám to be in the Qá'im's possession. Identified with The Hidden Words}
First Leaf Of Paradise
{ESW: Quotation is from Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet 'Words of Paradise' which has eleven numbered sections, each called a 'leaf'}
Gabriel
{GL: Said to be the highest of the angels, and to hover over the throne of God and shelter it with his wings}

{KI: The highest of all the angels, the Holy Spirit. It is his duty to write down the decrees of God; through him the Qur'án was revealed to Muhammad}

{CLUG: The highest of all the angels, The Holy Spirit, and said to hover over the throne of God and shelter it with his wings. It is his duty to write down the decrees of God; through him the Qur'án was revealed to Muhammad}

{KI: The letter H, the number of which is 5, and which is sometimes used as a symbol of Bahá'u'lláh: see Four Valleys, p. 59 n.}

see also Abjad

Hájí
{DBNN: A Muhammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca}
Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán
{KI: A pretender to knowledge, author of a book 'Guidance to the Ignorant' ('Irshádu'l- 'Avám'), whose works perished with him}
Hájí Muhammad-Ridá
{ESW: A highly respected Bahá'í of Ishqábád, martyred 1889}
Hájí Nasír
{ESW: (of Qazvín) A merchant; full name Hájí Muhammad-Nasír; martyred at Rasht in 1300 A.H. (1882-83)}
Hájí Shaykh Muhammad 'Alí
{ESW: A Bahá'í merchant from Qazvín, Persia, known as Nabíl Ibn-i-Nabíl; he lived in Istanbul from 1882 and committed suicide in that city on the 9th of Rajab 1307 (March 1, 1890)}
Hámán
{ESW: Chief Minister of Pharaoh}
Hamzih
{KI: 'Prince of Martyrs,' the title given to Muhammad's uncle}
Hasan And Husayn
{ESW: Two brothers, honored and wealthy citizens of Isfahán, Siyyids, who were martyred as Bahá'ís at the instance of the Imám-Jum'ih of that city.}
Hasan-i-Mázindarání (Muhammad Hasan)
{ESW: A believer from the ancestral province of Bahá'u'lláh. He is a son of Mírzá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, a paternal uncle of Bahá'u'lláh.}
Haydar-'Alí
{ESW: A devoted Bahá'í who, under Bahá'u'lláh and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá travelled widely in the service of the Cause and suffered much persecution. Died in Haifa, 1920, A.D. Author of the interesting narrative Bahjatus Sudour [Bihjatu's Sudúr].}
Herod
{KI: Herod I ('The Great'). An Idumaean by race, but brought up a Jew. He was appointed by the Roman Senate in 40 B.C. as King of Judea. He rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem}
Hijáz
{KI: A region in southwestern Arabia which may be considered the holy land of the Muslims since it contains the sacred cities of Medina and Mecca and many other places connected with the history of Muhammad. The 'language of Hijáz' is Arabic}
Hill And Haram
{ESW: Haram means 'sanctuary'. It refers to two areas near the Kaaba in which blood revenge was forbidden, and also to four months in the Arabic Calendar to which the same prohibition applied.
     -Hill means the unprotected area and the unprotected months.
     -The quotation from the poem here made (p. 17) means 'the judge has condemned me to death both in Haram and Hill'.}
Hisámu's-Saltanih
{ESW: Title of Prince Murad Mírzá, grandson of Fath-Alí Sháh}
Howdah
{DBNN: A litter carried by a camel, mule, horse, or elephant for travelling purposes}
Húd
{ESW: A prophet sent to the tribe of 'ÁD, which was descended from Shem and was highly civilized. He summoned the people to the worship of One God, but was rejected. (Qur'án 7, 63-70 etc.)}

{KI: A prophet sent to the tribe of 'Ád. He was descended from Noah and is referred to in the Qur'án in súrih 7:63-70; súrih 11:52-63; and in súrih 26:123-139}

{CLUG: A prophet, descended from Noah, sent to the tribe of 'Ád, which was descended from Shem and was highly civilized. He summoned the people to the worship of One God, but was rejected.}

Huqúqu'lláh
{KA: The 'Right of God'. Instituted in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, it is an offering made by the Bahá'is through the Head of the Faith for the purposes specified in the Bahá'i Writings.}
Husayn
{ESW: Son of 'Alí, The third Imám (A.H. 61)}

{GL: The third Imám, the Martyr of Karbilá}

{KI: The third Imám. Son of 'Alí and Fátimih}

{CLUG: Son of 'Alí and Fátimih, the third Imám (A.H. 61), the Martyr of Karbilá}

Ibn-i-Anas and Asbahí
{ESW: Two Arab zealots who directly took part in the murder of Imám Husayn}
Ibn-i-Mas'úd
{ESW: 'Abdu'lláh Ibn-i-Mas'úd, one of the early Arab Muslims at the time of Muhammad}
Ibn-i-Súríyá
{KI: A learned Jewish Rabbi at the time of Muhammad}
Íl
{DBNN: 'Clan'}
Imám(s)
{DBNN: Title of the twelve Shí'ah successors of Muhammad. Also applied to Muslim religious leaders.}

{ESW: Title of the twelve Shí'ah successors of Muhammad}

Imám-Jum'ih
{DBNN: The leading imám in a town or city; chief of the mullás}
Imám-Jum'ih of Isfahán
{ESW: Mír Muhammad Husayn, 'the She-Serpent' (successor in this post to his brother Mír Siyyid Muhammad who befriended the Báb--see The Dawn-Breakers). He, with 'the Wolf', Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, persecuted the Bahá'ís and brought about the death of Mírzá Muhammad Hasan and Mírzá Muhammad Husayn (The King and the Beloved of Martyrs), who were decapitated together.}
Imám-Zádih
{DBNN: Descendant of an imám, or his shrine}
'Imrán
{KI: The father of Moses and Aaron; Qur'án, súrih 3:30 and Bible, Exodus 6:20}
'Iráq
{KI: Part of the Turkish Empire in 1862 when The Kitáb-i-Íqán was revealed. Now an Arab Kingdom with Baghdád as its capital}
Isaiah, Book of
{GL: See Isaiah 2.V.10}
Isfahán
{ESW: An important city in central Persia}
Islam
{GL: Lit. 'Obedience to the will of God,' the name given to the religion of Muhammad}
Javád
{ESW: Siyyid Javád (Karbilá'í), brought up in Karbilá, a disciple of Kázim Rashti's, and a friend of the Báb's great uncle, he met the Báb as a child and later through Mullá 'Alí Bastammi [Bastámí] became a Bábí. He recognized Bahá'u'lláh before His Declaration, in Baghdád, and was known because of his sanctity as 'Siyyih-i-Núr'. He passed away in Kirmán, Persia.}

{GL: Hájí Siyyid Javád, one of the earliest Bábís, extolled by both the Báb and later by Bahá'u'lláh whom he met in Baghdád}

{CLUG: A disciple of Kázim Rashti, he met the Báb as a child and later became a Bábí. Extolled by both the Báb and later by Bahá'u'lláh, he recognized Bahá'u'lláh before His Declaration in Baghdád. He passed away in Kirmán, Persia.}

Joseph
{KI: The son of Jacob, and in the Qur'án an inspired prophet}
Jubbih
{DBNN: An upper coat}
Kaaba, Ka'bih
{DBNN: Ancient shrine at Mecca. Now recognised as the most holy shrine of Islám.}

{ESW: Literally, 'a cube.' The cube-like building in the center of the Mosque at Mecca, which contains the Black Stone.}

{GL: The Shrine which holds the Black Stone in the Mosque at Mecca}

{KI: Literally, a 'cube.' The cube-like building in the center of the Mosque at Mecca, which contains the Black Stone}

{CLUG: Literally, 'cube.' The cube-like ancient shrine in the center of the Mosque at Mecca, which contains the Black Stone. Now recognised as the most holy shrine of Islám.}

Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf
{GL: An implaccable foe of Muhammad whose life he sought}

{KI: Conspired with the Prophet's archenemy, Abú Sufyán, to compass the Prophet's death}

Kad-Khudá
{DBNN: Chief of a ward or parish in a town; headman of a village}
Káfí
{KI: An important collection of Shí'ih traditions, Jábir being the authority for the quotation given on p. 245}
Kalantar
{DBNN: 'Mayor'}
Kalím
{DBNN: 'One who discourses'}
Kamál
{GL: Hájí Mírzá Kamál, a famous Bábí of high education who met and recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád before His declaration. He wished to tell the News to everyone and was sent back to Persia.}
Kamál Páshá
{ESW: One of the Turkish dignitaries at the Court of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz}
Karbilá
{GL: The city in 'Iráq where the Imám Husayn was martyred and where he is buried. One of the two 'supreme shrines,' the other being Najaf.}

{KI: A city about 55 miles southwest of Baghdád on the Euphrates}

Karbilá'í
{DBNN: A Muhammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to Karbilá}
Karim
{KI: Honorable}
Kawthar
{GL: A river in Paradise, and the source of all other rivers}

{KI: A river of Paradise from which all the others flow. Part of its waters are led into a great lake on the shores of which the souls of the faithful rest when they have crossed the terrible bridge which is laid over the midst of Hell}

Kázim
{ESW: Mullá Kázim martyred in Isfahán. (See Traveller's Narrative, p. 400 note)}
Khán
{DBNN: 'Prince'. 'lord'. 'nobleman'. 'chieftain'}
Khaybar
{KI: The name of a famous oasis, and of its principal settlement, near Medina, where significant events in the ministry of Muhammad took place}
Khidr
{ESW: Name of a legendary immortal saint. (Qur'án 18.62 note)}
Khutbiy-i-Tutúnjíyyih
{ESW: Title of a sermon delivered by Imám 'Alí}
Kitáb-i-Aqdas
{ESW: The Most Holy Book, the chief work of Bahá'u'lláh containing His Law and constituting the Charter of His New World (1873)}

{GL: The greatest of Bahá'u'lláh's works containing His laws and ordinances (1873)}

Kitáb-i-Íqán
{ESW: The chief religious work of Bahá'u'lláh, revealed in Baghdád, 1862}
Kúfih
{KI: A city on the west bank of the Euphrates, which has now entirely disappeared}
Kuláh
{DBNN: The Persian lambskin hat, which differentiated the clergy from the laity, and was worn invariably by state officials and civilians}
Lamp of God, The
{GL: The spiritual light shed by God's prophet}
Lavásán
{ESW: A rural district lying to the east of Tihrán}
Lawh-i-Fu'ád
{ESW: A Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh and addressed to Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, in which reference is made to Fu'ád Páshá, after his death}
Lawh-i-Ra'ís
{ESW: Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to the Grand Vizir 'Alí Pashá.}
Lesser Peace
{ESW: The outward Peace which the nations will establish by their own efforts. Distinguished from The Most Great Peace}
Letters of Unity
{KI: Apostles of the Prophet}
Leviathan
{KI: An unidentified aquatic monster; whale or serpent}
Luqmán
{ESW: A famous legendary figure noted for his wisdom. (See Qur'án, Súrih 31)}
Ma'ání
{ESW: A reference to the Imáms as the repositories of the inner meanings of the Word of God}
Madrisih
{DBNN: Religious college}
Magi
{KI: A caste of priests and sages among the ancient Persians}
Manifestation
{GL: One who is the 'express image' of the perfections and attributes of God}

{KI: The nature of a prophet or the Manifestation of God is thus described in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'ulläh (pp. 66-67): '. . . since there can be no tie of direct intercourse to bind the one true God with His creation, and no resemblance whatever can exist between the transient and the Eternal, the contingent and the Absolute, He hath ordained that in every age and dispensation a pure and stainless Soul be made manifest in the kingdoms of earth and heaven. . . . These Essences of Detachment, these resplendent Realities are the channels of God's all-pervasive grace. Led by the light of unfailing guidance, and invested with Supreme Sovereignty, they are commissioned to use the inspiration of Their words, the effusions of Their infallible grace and the sanctifying breezes of Their Revelation for the cleansing of every longing heart and receptive spirit from the dross and dust of earthly cares and limitations.'}

Man-Yuzhiruh'lláh
{DBNN: 'He whom God will make manifest'. Title given by the Báb to the promised One. Reference to Bahá'u'lláh.}
Mashhadí
{DBNN: A Muhammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to Mashhad}
Mashriqu'l-Adhkár
{KA: Literally 'the Dawning-place of the praise of God', the designation of the Bahá'i House of Worship and its dependencies}
Masjid
{DBNN: Mosque, temple, place of worship}
Masjid-i-Sháh
{ESW: A great Mosque in Tihrán built by Fath-'Alí Sháh}
Maydán
{DBNN: A subdivision of a farsakh/farsang. A square or open place.}
Mázindarán
{ESW: A province in northern Persia}
Mecca
{GL: The city where Muhammad was born and where he declared Himself}

{KI: The capital of Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad, the site of the Ka'bih, and the most sacred city of Islám}

Medina, Al-Medina, Medinat un-Nabi
{GL: The city which sheltered Muhammad and where He is buried; esteemed as second only to Mecca in sanctity}

{KI: Literally, 'the city,' so called as giving shelter to Muhammad: formerly Yathrib. The burial place of Muhammad; second only to Mecca in sanctity}

Midian
{KI: A city and district on the Red Sea, southeast of Mt. Sinai, occupied by the descendants of Midian, son of Abraham and Keturah. Qur'án, súrih 7:83}
Mihdí
{DBNN: Title of the Manifestation expected by Islám}

{GL: Title of the Manifestation expected by Islám}

Mihrab
{DBNN: The principal place in a mosque, where the imám prays with his face turned towards Mecca}
Mi'ráj
{DBNN: 'Ascent'; used with reference to Muhammad's ascension to heaven}

{KI: The night journey of Muhammad with Gabriel}

Mírzá
{DBNN: A contraction of Amír-Zádih, meaning son of Amír. When affixed to a name, it signifies prince; when prefixed, simply Mr.}
Mírzá Ahmad (Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karim of Qazvín)
{ESW: A devoted follower of the Báb and of Bahá'u'lláh and amanuensis of the Báb, who before His death sent through him His gifts and effects to Bahá'u'lláh}
Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar
{ESW: A cousin (paternal) of the Báb and intimate friend of Dayyán. Murdered by the followers of Mírzá Yahyá}
Mírzá Hádí Dawlat-Ábádí
{ESW: A noted divine from Isfahán who became a prominent follower of Mírzá Yahyá, later identified as his successor}
Mírzá Husayn Khán, Mushíru'd-Dawlih
{ESW: The Persian Ambassador at the Sublime Porte through whose influence Bahá'u'lláh was transferred from Baghdad to Constantinople. (God Passes By, pp. 146, 159)}
Mírzá Músá
{ESW: A faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh}
Mírzá Mustafá (of Naráq)
{ESW: One of the followers of the Báb who was executed in Tabriz. (See Memorials of the Faithful, pp. 148-50)}
Mírzá Ridá-Qulí
{ESW: One of Bahá'u'lláh's brothers who could not recognize His station}
Mírzá Safá
{ESW: Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá, an accomplice of Mírzá Husayn Khán, in active hostility towards Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople}
Mírzá Vahháb-i-Khurásání
{ESW: Also known as Mírzá Javád, a prominent early believer who lived during the ministry of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh}
Mírzá Yahyá
{ESW: Younger half-brother of Bahá'u'lláh and His implacable enemy}
Mithqál
{KA: A unit of weight, equivalent to a little over 3 1/2 grammes, used in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas with reference to quantities of gold or silver for various purposes, usually in amounts of 9, 19 or 95 mithqáls. The equivalents of these in the metric system and in troy ounces (which are used in the measurement of precious metals), are as follows:

9 mithqáls = 32.775 grammes = 1.05374 troy ounces
19 mithqáls = 69.192 grammes = 2.22456 troy ounces
95 mithqáls = 345.958 grammes = 11.12282 troy ounces

This computation is based on the guidance of Shoghi Effendi, conveyed in a letter written on his behalf, which states 'one mithqál consists of nineteen nakhuds. The weight of twenty-four nakhuds equals four and three-fifths grammes. Calculations may be made on this basis.' The mithqál traditionally used in the Middle East had consisted of 24 nakhuds but in the Bayán this was changed to 19 nakhuds and Bahá'u'lláh confirmed this as the size of the mithqál referred to in the Bahá'i laws (Q&A 23). }

Moses
{KI: One of the six great prophets, according to the Muhammadans. See Exodus 4:16, where God says to Moses: 'thou shalt be to him instead of God'; and Exodus 7:1: 'I have made thee a god to Pharaoh.' Moses led the exodus from Egypt, which is now dated about 1440 B.C.}
Mosque Of Aqsá
{ESW: The name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur'án}
Most Great Name, The
{GL: A title of Bahá'u'lláh}
Mu'adhdhin
{DBNN: The one who sounds the Adhan, the Muhammadan call to prayer}
Mufaddal
{ESW: A devoted follower of Imám Sadiq, who has handed down many Muslim traditions from the AMAM}

{KI: Reference to Shí'ah tradition}

Muhammad
{GL: Lit. 'The Praised One.' The Founder of Islám, the son of 'Abdu'lláh of the family of Háshim, born in Mecca in (it is said) the year 570 A.D.}

{KI: The Prophet of Islám and Revealer of the Qur'án. Born August A.D. 570. Declared His Mission A.D. 613. Fled to Medina A.D. 622. See Some Answered Questions, pp. 22-29. Foretold by Moses, Deut. 18:15; by St. John the Divine, Rev. 11 (see Some Answered Questions, p. 53 ff.)}

{CLUG: Lit. 'The Praised One'. The Prophet Founder of Islám and Revealer of the Qur'án. Born in Mecca August A.D. 570. Declared His Mission A.D. 613. Foretold by Moses, and St. John the Divine.}

Mujtahid
{DBNN: Muhammadan doctor of law. Most of the mujtahids of Persia have received their diplomas from the most eminent jurists of Karbilá and Najaf.}
Mullá
{DBNN: Muhammadan priest}
Mullá 'Abdu'l-Kháliq-i-Yazdí
{KI: At first a Jewish priest, he accepted Islám, joined the Shaykhí School and was converted by Mullá Husayn to the Bábí Faith}
Mullá 'Alí-Ján
{ESW: A believer of Mázindarán: martyred in Tihrán. (God Passes By, p. 201)}
Mullá 'Alíy-i-Baraqání
{KI: Uncle of Táhirih, one of the most learned and famous members of the Shaykhí community. Being converted to the Bábí Faith, he became in Tihrán one of its most earnest and able expositors.}
Mullá 'Alíy-i-Bastámí
{KI: One of the Letters of the Living. Sent on a special mission by the Báb from Shíráz in 1844, he became the first to suffer and to lay down his life in the path of this new Faith}
Mullá Báqir
{ESW: A native of Tabríz and a man of great learning, became a Letter of the Living. Was with Bahá'u'lláh in Núr, Mázindarán and Badasht. Outlived all other Letters of the Living}

{KI: A brother of Mullá Mihdíy-i-Kandí, martyred at Tabarsí}

Mullá Husayn
{KI: The first to believe in the Báb, the first 'Letter of the Living,' the 'Bábu'l-Báb'-meaning 'the Gate of the Gate,' a title given him by the Báb. Born in 1813, he was for nine years a student of Siyyid Kázim and for five a follower of the Báb. He was martyred at the fort of Shaykh Tabarsí, on February 2, 1849}
Mullá Mihdíy-i-Khu'í
{KI: A close companion of Bahá'u'lláh and tutor to the children of His household. Martyred at Tabarsí}
Mullá Muhammad 'Álíy-i-Zanjání
{KI: Surnamed Hujjat. 'One of the ablest and most formidable champions of the Faith' (God Passes By, p. 44), the leader of the Bábís in what Lord Curzon called 'the terrific siege and slaughter' they suffered at Zanján where he with 1800 fellow disciples was martyred}
Mullá Ni'matu'lláh-i-Mázindarání
{KI: A Bábí martyred at Shaykh Tabarsí}
Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí
{KI: A 'Letter of the Living,' martyred at Shaykh Tabarsí}
Mustagháth
{DBNN: 'He who is invoked'; the numerical value of which has been assigned by the Báb as the limit of the time fixed for the advent of the promised Manifestation}

{GL: Lit. 'He who is invoked'. By reference to the numerical value of this word, the Báb reveals the ninth year of this Era (A.D. 1853) as the date of Bahá'u'lláh's manifestation.}

{KI: Literally, 'He who is invoked.' Referring to the appearance of Bahá'u'lláh at the time announced by the Báb}

Nabíl
{DBNN: 'Learned', 'noble'}
Nabíl-i-A'zam
{GL: The Bahá'í title of Muhammad-i-Zarandí, a devoted follower of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, author of the historical work known as Nabíl's Narrative}
Nadr-ibn-i-Hárith
{GL: An opponent of Muhammad}

{KI: An opponent of Muhammad}

Najaf-'Alí
{ESW: One of the 44 survivors of Zanján who were brought to Tihrán and all of them executed save Najaf 'Alí, on whom an officer took pity. But some years later he was arrested again and beheaded. (See God Passes By, p. 178)}
Nakhud
{KA: A unit of weight. See 'Mithqál'}
Naw-Rúz
{DBNN: 'New Day'. Name applied to the Bahá'í New Year's Day; according to the Persian calendar, the day on which the sun enters Aries.}
Nayríz
{ESW: A town in southern Persia, near Shíráz}
Nebuchadnezzar
{KI: King of Babylon. In 599 B.C. he captured Jerusalem, and in 588 B.C. he destroyed the city and removed most of the inhabitants to Chaldaea}
Nimrod
{GL: The persecutor of Abraham}

{KI: In Muhammadan commentaries represented as the persecutor of Abraham}

Níyávarán
{ESW: A village in which there is a royal residence}
Noah
{KI: A prophet to whom Muhammadans give the title of the 'Prophet of God,' see Gen. 6:10 and Qur'án, súrihs 11, 71, for an account of his life and of the Flood}
Nudbih, Prayer of
{KI: A 'Lamentation' of the Imám 'Alí}
Nuqtih
{DBNN: 'Point'}
Pahlaván
{DBNN: 'Athlete', 'champion'. Term applied to brave and muscular men.}
Paradise
{KI: A heavenly garden; a state of bliss. The Manifestation is 'The Nightingale of Paradise'; His Revelation, 'the rustling of the leaves of Paradise'; 'the love of God' is itself Paradise}
Párán
{GL: A mountain-range north of Sinai, used to typify a place of revelation}

{KI: Parán is a mountain range north of Sinai and south of Seir; all are sacred as places of revelation. Teman lies in northwest Edam, not far from Párán. See Habakuk 3:3. Moses himself uses 'Párán' with special reference to Muhammad and 'Seir' to Jesus Christ: 'And he said, The Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Párán, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from His right hand went a fiery law for them.' (Deut. 33:2). Here Moses foretells the coming of three revelations and three prophets after himself, the last being Bahá'u'lláh. Ishmael (Gen. 21:21) founded the Arabian peoples in Párán.}

Pentateuch
{GL: The first five books of the Bible, attributed to Moses}

{KI: Literally, 'the fivefold volume,' referring to the first five books of the Bible}

{CLUG: Literally, 'the fivefold volume,' referring to the first five books of the Bible, attributed to Moses}

see also Torah

People Of Bahá
{ESW: Followers of Bahá'u'lláh}
Pharaoh
{KI: The common title of the kings of Egypt. The Pharaoh of the oppression is usually held to be Ramesis II (about 1340 B.C.), and his son and successor Merenptah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus, but this is highly uncertain and the birth of Moses is dated as early as 1520 B.C.}
Philosopher's Stone
{KI: An imaginary substance which the alchemists formerly sought as a means of converting baser metals into gold}

see also Divine Elixir

Phoenix
{KI: A bird fabled to exist single, to be consumed by fire by its own act, and to rise again from its ashes}
Primal Will
{KI: 'The first thing which emanated from God is that universal reality . . . which the people of Bahá call the 'First Will.' ' (Some Answered Questions, p. 203)}
Prince Shujá'u'd-Dawlih
{ESW: A Persian Prince attached to the Embassy at Istanbul during reign of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz}
Qádí
{DBNN: Judge: civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical}
Qá'im
{DBNN: 'He Who shall arise'. Title designating The Promised One of Islám.}

{ESW: Lit. 'He Who shall arise.' The Promised One of Islám}

{GL: The Promised One of Islám}

{KI: The promised one of Islám}

Qalyán
{DBNN: A pipe for smoking through water}
Qárún
{ESW: A cousin of Moses, who having believed in Moses, turned against Him and with his fellow-rebels was destroyed by the wrath of God. (See Numbers Ch. 16)}
Qayyúmu'l-Asmá', Qayyúm-i-Asmá
{ESW: Explanation of the 'Súrih of Joseph': the first work written by the Báb}

{GL: One of the chief works of the Báb}

{KA: The Báb's commentary on the Súrih of Joseph in the Qur'án. Revealed in 1844, this work is characterized by Bahá'u'lláh as 'the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation.}

{KI: A commentary on the Súrih of Joseph in the Qur'án, written by the Báb in 1844, and regarded by the Bábís as in effect their Qur'án. (For an outline of its contents, see God Passes By, p. 23)}

Qiblih
{DBNN: The direction to which people turn in prayer; especially Mecca, the Qiblih of all Muhammadans}

{KI: The direction in which the face must be turned in prayer. Qur'án, súrih 2:136-145, establishes Mecca as the Qiblih for Muslims}

Quintessence
{GL: The last or highest essence of an object}

{KI: An imagined fifth 'essence of heaven' in addition to the four elements of earth: hence, the last or highest essence of anything}

Qur'án
{GL: The Scripture of the Muhammadans, written in the Arabic language}

{KI: The Qur'án (Arabic, 'reading'), the holy scriptures of the Muhammadan faith, revealed by Muhammad. The verses are built up into chapters called súrihs. It contains 77,974 words and is slightly longer than the New Testament; it was composed over a period of 21 years. The whole book was not arranged until after the Prophet's death, but He is believed to have Himself divided the súrihs and given most of them their present titles. Translation into English by G. Sale (1734) is the most authoritative, but that by J. M. Rodwell (Everyman's Series) is recommended as the best. See also A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted}

Qurbán
{DBNN: 'Sacrifice'}
Rasht
{ESW: A city in the Province of Gílán in northern Persia}
Rayy
{KI: An ancient city near which Tihrán was built}
Revelation
{GL: The Unveiling by God to men of something which hitherto He had hidden from them}
Ridván
{GL: The custodian of Paradise. Used to denote Paradise itself}

{KI: The name of the custodian of Paradise. Bahá'u'lláh uses it to denote Paradise itself}

Rik'ats
{KI: Prostrations}
Rúz-bih
{KI: A Persian who embraced Christianity and being told a Prophet was about to arise in Arabia journeyed thither and meeting Muhammad at Koba in His flight to Medina recognized His station and became a Muslim}
Sád-i-Isfahání
{ESW: Refers to Sadru'l-'Ulamá of Isfahán, a follower of Mírzá Yahyá}
Sadrah
{ESW: Reference to the Sadratu'l-Muntahá or the Burning Bush: 'Him Who taught it,' i.e., God Himself}
Sadratu'l-Muntahá
{ESW: The name of a tree planted by the Arabs in ancient times at the end of a road to serve as a guide. As a symbol, a Manifestation of God.}

{GL: The name of a tree planted at the end of a road to serve as a guide; a symbol of a Manifestation}

{KI: The name of a tree planted by the Arabs in ancient times at the end of a road, to serve as a guide. As a symbol it denotes the Manifestation of God in His Day}

see also Sadrah

Sadrih
{KI: Literally, Branch}
Sáhibu'z-Zamán
{DBNN: 'Lord of the Age'. One of the titles of the promised Qá'im.}
Sálih
{ESW: An Arabian prophet of later date than Húd, who gave a similar summons. He, too, was cast out by the people.}

{KI: An ancient prophet to the Arabs, mentioned in the Qur'án, súrih 7:71-77. Some commentators identify him with the Sálih of Genesis 11:13}

Salmán, Shaykh Salmán
{GL: Born in southern Persia, an illiterate, he became one of the most beloved and most devoted disciples of Bahá'u'lláh who entrusted him with many dangerous and important missions}
Salsabíl
{GL: A fountain in Paradise}

{KI: Literally, softly flowing. A fountain of Paradise}

Salván (Siloam)
{ESW: A spring in Mecca}
Sámirí
{KI: A magician employed by Pharaoh as a rival to Moses. According to Muslims, it was he, not Aaron, who made the golden calf}
Sardár 'Azíz Khán
{ESW: He was present with the Sháh's troops attacking Bábís at Zanján. (See Traveller's Narrative, p. 181 note.) During his tenure as governor of Tabríz several believers were executed in that city.}
Seal of the Prophets
{GL: A title of Muhammad, referring to the approaching close of the Prophetic Cycle}

{KI: One of the titles of Muhammad}

Sháh
{GL: Násiri'd-Din Sháh}
Shahid
{DBNN: 'Martyr'. The plural of martyr is 'Shuhadá.'}
Shaykh
{GL: Referring to Shaykh Salmán}
Shaykh Ahmad, Shaykh-i-Ahsá'í
{ESW: Precursor of the Báb}

{KI: The first of the two forerunners of the Báb, born A.D. 1753, founder of the Shaykhí School and author of 96 books. Died 1831}

Shaykh Muhammad Taqí ('The Son of the Wolf', Aqa Najafi)
{ESW: A priest of Isfahán whose father had caused the death of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of the Martyrs}
Shaykhu'l-Islám
{DBNN: Head of religious court, appointed to every large city by the Sháh}
Sheba
{KI: A town in southern Arabia, referred to in Genesis 10:28; I Kings 10; II Chronicles 9. Symbolically it stands for a dwelling place, a home}
Shí'ih
{ESW: One of the two great sects of Islám, which is dominant in Persia}

{GL: A Muhammadan sect distinguished by its spiritual doctrine of the Imámate and represented by the Sháh}

{KI: The problem of succession divides Islám generally into two schools of opinion. According to one view, represented chiefly by the Shí'ihs, the regency is a spiritual matter determined by the Prophet and by those who so succeed Him. According to the other view, that of the Sunnites, the succession goes by popular choice. The Caliph of the Sunnites is the outward and visible Defender of the Faith. The Shí'ih Imám is divinely ordained and gifted with more than human wisdom and authority}

Shimírán (Gate Of)
{ESW: A district in the northern section of Tihrán}
Shíráz
{KI: The capital of the Province of Fárs in Persia; the place of the Báb's birth and the scene of His Declaration in 1844}
Shoeb
{KI: Priest of Midian (Exodus 2:16-21). Moses married his daughter; Exodus 18 gives his name as Jethro}
Shoghi Effendi
{GL: Grandson of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. and Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith}
{KA: Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957), Guardian of the Bahá'i Faith from 1921-1957. He was the eldest grandson of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was appointed by Him as the Head of the Faith.}
Sinai
{ESW: The mountain where the Law was revealed by God to Moses}

{GL: The Mountain where God gave the tables of the Law to Moses; sometimes an emblem of the human heart which is the place of God's descent}

{KI: The mountain where God gave the Law to Moses (Qur'án, súrih 7:139 and Exodus 19)}

Sirát
{KI: Literally, bridge or support; denotes the religion of God}
Síyáh-Chál
{KA: Literally 'the Black Pit'. The dark, foul-smelling, subterranean dungeon in Tihrán where Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for four months in 1852.}
Siyyid
{DBNN: Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad}
Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjání
{ESW: Martyred with 'Abá Básir (See God Passes By, p. 199 and Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, p. 135)}

{GL: Siyyid Ashraf, born in the Fort of Zanján during the siege}

{CLUG: Born in the Fort of Zanján during the siege, martyred with 'Abá Básir}

Siyyid Husayn-i-Turshízí
{KI: A mujtahid, one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán}
Siyyid Ibráhím (surnamed 'Khalil' by the Báb)
{ESW: A deeply trusted disciple of the Báb from the earliest days. Later in Baghdád recognized the true station of Bahá'u'lláh, Who protected him against Yahyá's designs.}
Siyyid Ismá'íl
{ESW: A believer from the time of the Báb, who sacrificed his life for love of Bahá'u'lláh, and was given the title of 'Zabih'}
Siyyid Kázim
{KI: Chief disciple of Shaykh Ahmad and his successor. Husayn and other distinguished Bábís were among his students. Died December 31, 1843}
Siyyid Muhammad
{ESW: 'The Anti-Christ of the Bahá'í Revelation' who instigated the villainies of Mírzá Yahyá}
Siyyid of Findirisk (Mír-Abu'l Qásim Findiriski)
{ESW: A noted Persian poet and thinker, who lived in the 16th Century, A.D.}
Siyyid Yahyá, surnamed Vahíd
{KI: A distinguished divine of great learning who became a Bábí and was martyred after the siege of Nayríz on June 29, 1850, ten days before the death of the Báb}
Súfís
{KI: An order of Muhammadan mystics}
Sultán
{GL: Sultán 'Abdu'l-Azíz}
Sunní
{GL: The larger and more powerful of the two great Islámic sects, represented by the Sultán, the outward and visible Defender of the Faith}
Súratu'l-Haykal
{ESW: A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh, at the end of which followed The Tablets to the Kings, the whole being written in the shape of a five-pointed star, the symbol of man}
Súrih
{DBNN: Name of the chapters of the Qur'án}

{KI: A row or course, as of bricks in a wall. A term used exclusively for the chapters of the Qur'án of which there are one hundred and fourteen}

Súrih Of Tawhíd
{ESW: The name of the first Súrih of the Qur'án; in which the oneness of God is explained}
Súriy-i-Ra'ís (Tablet to Ra'ís)
{GL: Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Adrianople}

{GL: Epistle of Bahá'u'lláh to 'Alí Páshá the Grand Vazír}

{CLUG: Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Adrianople to 'Alí Páshá the Grand Vazír}

Tabarsí
{ESW: A shrine lying 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh, where Quddús, Husayn and many leading Bábís suffered martyrdom}
Tablet
{KI: A term for a sacred epistle containing a revelation. The giving of the Law to Moses on tables or tablets is mentioned in the Qur'án, súrih 7:142: 'We wrote for him (Moses) upon tables (alwah, pl. of lauh/lawh) a monition concerning every matter.'}

{CLUG: A sacred epistle containing a revelation}

Taff (land of)
{KI: The plain of Karbilá in which vicinity Imám Husayn was martyred}
Talisman
{GL: Lit. a charm which drew down the power of heaven to protect its wearer. A symbol of man protected by the power of God}
Thamúd
{ESW: An ancient idolatrous tribe of Arabs, who dwelt in caves, (Qur'án, 7.71, 9.71)}

{KI: A tribe of an ancient Hamitic people, inhabiting the borders of Edom and living in caves. They were nearly exterminated by Chedorlaomer, the Elomite conqueror. The survivors fled to Mt. Seir where they dwelt in the time of Isaac and Jacob}

see also 'Ád

Tihrán
{ESW: The capital city of Persia and birthplace of Bahá'u'lláh}

{GL: 'Land of Tá' meaning Tihrán, being the initial letter of the name}

{GL: The birthplace of Bahá'u'lláh (November 12, 1817)* and capital of Irán}

* [Festivals of the Twin Birthdays] '...will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz.' UHJ
see also Rayy
Torah
{GL: The Pentateuch of Moses}

Towa
{ESW: A holy vale in Sinai. (Qur'án 20; 10, 11, Exod. 3; I Kgs. 198.)}
Traditions
{KI: The authoritative record of inspired sayings and acts of the Prophet, in addition to the revelation contained in the Qur'án}
Túmán
{DBNN: A sum of money equivalent to a dollar}
Turner, Robert C.
{CLUG: The first African American to embrace the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the West, a believer so outstanding as to be designated a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Herald of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi}
'Urvatu'l-Vuthqá
{KI: Literally, 'the strongest handle,' meaning the Faith of God}
Valí-'Ahd
{DBNN: 'Heir to the throne'}
Yahyá
{KI: John, the forerunner of Jesus Christ. He was beheaded by Herod}
Yanbú'
{KI: A compilation of Shí'ih traditions}
Yathrib
{KI: The ancient name of the city which was changed to Medinat un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, or shortly Medina, the city par excellence}
Year Sixty
{KI: Meaning 1260 A.H., A.D. 1844, the year of the Báb's Declaration}
Zádih
{DBNN: 'Son'}
Zamzam (Well of)
{ESW: A well in Mecca regarded by the Muslims as sacred}
Zanján
{ESW: A town in western Persia, the scene of the martyrdom of 1800 Bábís led by Mullá Muhammad 'Alí, surnamed Hujjat}

{GL: 'Land of Zá' meaning Zanján, being the initial letter of the name}

Zaqqúm
{KI: A tree in the Infernal Regions }
Zion
{GL: A hill in Jerusalem, the site of the royal residence of David and his successors} {KA: A hill in Jerusalem, the traditional site of the tomb of King David, and is symbolic of Jerusalem as a Holy City (n114)}
Zíyárat
{KI: Visiting Tablet revealed by the Imám 'Alí}
The Covenant Library Unified Glossary, V1.2.0.0